2008

 

INTRODUCTION 
The Kennebec Water District (KWD) has been in existence since 1899. KWD presently serves the municipalities of Waterville, Winslow, Fairfield, Vassalboro, and Benton and supplies water for the town of Oakland.  KWD has a regular testing and reporting program and this Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) is one way of communicating those test results. The CCR is intended to provide you, the KWD customer, with important information about your drinking water. KWD’s trustees and employees want you to know that you can count on us for a safe and reliable supply of water every day, and we are dedicated to providing the highest quality service to you.

WATER QUALITY
KWD ensures that your water is safe through regular monitoring of both its source and treated water. Testing is conducted in KWD’s own laboratory as well as in independent, state-certified laboratories. This CCR is a comprehensive summary of the laboratory test results.  KWD employs a staff of certified water treatment operators, licensed by the State of Maine Department of Human Services, to maintain water quality within required parameters.

The Safe Drinking Water Act directs the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to establish and enforce minimum drinking water standards.  These standards set limits on certain biological, organic, inorganic, and radioactive substances potentially found in water supplies.  Two levels of standards have been established.  Primary drinking water standards set achievable levels (MCL’s) and goals for drinking water quality to protect your health. Secondary drinking water standards (SMCL’s)  provide guidelines regarding the taste, odor, color, and other aesthetic aspects of your drinking water which do not present a health risk. The 2008 testing results indicate that the Kennebec Water District’s water continuously meets or exceeds all state and federal requirements.

The presence of contaminants does not necessarily indicate that water poses a health risk.  However, some people may be more vulnerable to contaminants in drinking water than the general population.  Immune-compromised persons such as persons with cancer undergoing chemotherapy, persons who have undergone organ transplants, people with HIV/AIDS or other immune system disorders, some elderly, and infants can be particularly at risk from infections.  These people should seek advice about drinking water from their health care providers.  EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk of infection  by Crytosporidium and other microbial contaminants are available from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline (1-800-426-4791) or from the Kennebec Water District office.

Fluoride in Drinking Water: KWD adds fluoride to its water in an amount to meet the EPA’s recommended dosage level of 1.2 ppm. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) states that a proper amount of fluoride from infancy through old age helps prevent and control tooth decay. Parents, however, should be aware that a recent study raised the possibility that fluoride exposure during the first year of life may play a role in the development of enamel fluorosis, cosmetic changes to the outer surface of the tooth. When fluoridated water is used consistently as a mixer for formula as the primary source of nutrition over long periods of the first year, a child may receive enough fluoride to increase his/her chances of developing very mild to mild fluorosis. This potential can be lessened by using a low fluoride water for formula all or most of the time. For more advice: http://www.cdc.gov/fluoridation/safety/infant_formula.htm.

Lead in Drinking Water: If present, elevated levels of lead can cause serious health problems, especially for pregnant women and young children. Lead in drinking water is primarily from materials and components associated with service lines and home plumbing. KWD is responsible for providing high quality drinking water, but cannot control the variety of materials used in household plumbing components. When your water has been sitting for several hours, you can minimize the potential for lead exposure by flushing your tap for 30 seconds to 2 minutes before using water for drinking and cooking. If you are concerned about lead in your water, you may wish to have your water tested. Information on lead in drinking water, testing methods, and steps you can take to minimize exposure is available from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline or at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/lead.

Pharmaceuticals in Drinking Water: Recent media attention has focused on the presence of trace amounts of pharmaceutical and personal care products that have been detected in some water sources. Some minute amounts of these products may pass through animals and humans who use them and eventually enter groundwater or surface waters. Even in locations showing some presence, the levels found are extremely low concentrations – millions of times lower than a therapeutic dose. Testing for the products is not yet required by EPA. KWD will be proactively testing China Lake water and its finished water in 2008 for such products. More information can be found at: http://www.epa.gov/ppcp/ .

WATER SUPPLY / SOURCE INFORMATION
China Lake has served as KWD’s primary source of water since 1905.   China Lake has 6.1 square miles of surface area within 32 square miles of watershed.  The estimated capacity of the lake is 31 billion gallons. KWD demand averages approximately 1.2 billion gallons annually.  As a surface water body, China Lake is susceptible to pollution and contamination from both human and natural sources. Early in its existence, to help protect the water quality within China Lake, the Kennebec Water District acquired nearly all of the shoreline around the west basin of the lake.  The east basin shoreline is mostly privately owned.   Protection of the watershed presently is a combined effort of the towns of China and Vassalboro, the China Region Lakes Alliance, the China Lake Association and the Kennebec Water District. The common goal of these organizations is to improve China Lake water quality.

The Maine Drinking Water Program has evaluated all public water supplies statewide as part of its Source Water Assessment Program.  The evaluation considered geology, hydrology, land use, water testing information and the extent of land ownership or protection by local ordinance to determine future potential drinking water source contamination.   The KWD Source Water Assessment is available for public viewing at the Kennebec Water District office.

Because the variable water quality from China Lake includes frequent algae blooms during the summer and fall, the KWD water treatment facility uses many modern processes to effectively improve the quality of water you receive at your tap. These processes include coagulation, filtration, disinfection, pH adjustment and corrosion control.  Coagulation with alum is used to remove particles from the raw water in three Microfloc upflow clarifiers.  The water is then filtered and polished in six granular activated carbon filters. Chlorine is added as a disinfectant. Chlorine levels are continuously monitored to ensure adequate and appropriate disinfection has occurred prior to delivery to consumers. As a dental health aid, fluoride is also combined with the finished water.

The addition of a corrosion inhibitor and raising the pH of the water provides corrosion protection for KWD’s distribution piping and your household plumbing. This treatment practice has been so effective that our annual monitoriing program for lead and copper levels has been reduced to once every three years.

WATER SYSTEM DATA
KWD’s water transmission and distribution systems include over 171 miles of water mains.  The system serves over 8,800 customers in six communities and provides fire protection service through 633 hydrants.  In the last twelve months, KWD produced and delivered 1.19 billion gallons of water.  That’s a daily average of 3.25 million gallons.  KWD can maintain 17.4 million gallons in its 6 storage tanks.  This storage permits KWD to meet normal and peak system demands and to maintain an adequate supply for firefighting needs.

HIGHLIGHTS OF THE PAST YEAR
Approximately 1,118 feet of water main was replaced or added to the KWD system in 2008. In addition, 21 leak repairs were completed on water mains, services, and hydrants. 868 water meters were cleaned, tested, and returned to service and over 35,000 meter readings were recorded and billed. More than 600 samples were collected and analyzed in KWD state certified laboratory.

Tough economic times in 2008 caused the District to reduce the number of projects it normally undertakes. The cost of energy, chemicals and many other materials and services typically used by KWD increased substantially during the year and the District adjusted its normal operations and focused more on system maintenance tasks than on replacements and upgrades.

OTHER IMPORTANT INFORMATION
This CCR is only a summary report. If you have any questions about this report, your water quality, or your water service, please call the Kennebec Water District Business Office at (207)872-2763 during normal business hours (Monday through Friday between 8:30AM and 4:30PM). Questions may also be directed to the Maine Department of Health and Human Services, C.D.C., Drinking Water Program at (207) 287-2070 or online at www.state.me.us/dhhs/eng/water or to the EPA Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 1-800-426-4791 or online at www.epa.gov/safewater/dwhealth.html.

   

Primary Drinking Water Standards

Parameter

Maximum Contaminant Level Goal

Maximum Contaminant Level

 

Actual KWD Test Results 

CLARITY   2008   Finished Water

 

 

 

Turbidity  (a) (e)

0.10 NTU

0.50 NTU

Avg:  0.09 NTU Max.: 0.12
MICROBIOLOGICAL  (b) 2008  Finished Water            Coliform bacteria

Enzyme substrate test

(480 tests conducted)

% positive for microbiological presence

0 %

5 %

0.42 %***

Cryptosporidium / Giardia lamblia cysts

0

 

BDL

VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICALS  (c) EPA VOC 524.2 (formerly TSN) and EPA SVO 525.2 (formerly TSO)

 

Acrylamide

0 ppm

TT

No test required in 2008

Alachlor

0 ppb

2 ppb

BDL

Atrazine

3 ppb

3 ppb

BDL

Benzene

0 ppb

5 ppb

BDL

Benzo(a)pyrene (PAHs)

0 ppb

0.2 ppb

BDL

Carbofuran

40 ppb

40 ppb

BDL

Carbon Tetrachloride

0 ppb

5 ppb

BDL

Chlordane

0 ppb

2 ppb

BDL

Chlorobenzene

100 ppb

100 ppb

BDL

2,4 – D

70 ppb

70 ppb

BDL

Dalapon

200 ppb

200 ppb

BDL

Dibromochloropropane (DBCP)

0 ppt

0.2 ppb

State Wide Waiver

o –  Dichlorobenzene

600 ppb

600 ppb

BDL

p – Dichlorobenzene

75 ppb

75 ppb

BDL

1,2 – Dichloroethane

0 ppb

5 ppb

BDL

1,1 – Dichloroethylene

7 ppb

7 ppb

BDL

cis- 1,2 – Dichloroethylene

70 ppb

70 ppb

BDL

trans- 1,2 – Dichloroethylene

100 ppb

100 ppb

BDL

Dichlormethane

0 ppb

5 ppb

No test required in 2008

1,2 – Dichoropropane

0 ppb

5 ppb

BDL

Di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate

400 ppb

400 ppb

No test required in 2008

Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

0 ppb

6 ppb

BDL

Dinoseb

7 ppb

7 ppb

BDL

Dioxin (2,3,7,8 – TCDD)

0

.03 ppt

State Wide Waiver

Diquat

20 ppb

20 ppb

KWD Waiver  2006-2008

Endothal

100 ppb

100 ppb

KWD Waiver  2006-2008

Endrin

2 ppb

2 ppb

BDL

Epichlorohydrin

0 ppb

TT

No test required in 2008

Ethylbenzene

700 ppb

700 ppb

BDL

Ethylene Dibromide (EDB)

0 ppt

50 ppt

BDL

Glyphosate

700 ppb

700 ppb

State Wide Waiver

Heptachlor

0 ppt

400 ppt

BDL

Heptachlor Epoxide

0

200 ppt

BDL

Heptachlor /Heptachlor Epoxide

0

200 ppt

BDL

Hexachlorobenzene

0

1 ppb

BDL

Hexachlorocyclopentadine

50 ppb

50 ppb

BDL

Lindane

200 ppt

200 ppt

BDL

Methoxychlor

40 ppb

40 ppb

BDL

Oxamyl (Vydate)

200 ppb

200 ppb

BDL

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB’s)

0 ppt

500 ppt

BDL

Pentachlorophenol

0 ppb

1 ppb

BDL

Picloram

500 ppb

500 ppb

BDL

Simazine

4 ppb

4 ppb

BDL

Styrene

100 ppb

100 ppb

BDL

Tetrachloroethylene (PCE)

0 ppb

5 ppb

BDL

Toluene

1 ppm

1 ppm

BDL

Toxaphene

0 ppb

3 ppb

BDL

2,4, 5 – TP (Silvex)

50 ppb

50 ppb

BDL

1, 2, 4 – Trichlorobenzene

70 ppb

70 ppb

BDL

1,1, 1 – Trichloroethane

200 ppb

200 ppb

BDL

1, 1, 2 – Trichloroethane

3 ppb

5 ppb

BDL

Trichloroethylene (TCE)

0 ppb

5 ppb

BDL

Vinyl Chloride

0 ppb

2 ppb

BDL

Xylenes (total)

10 ppm

10 ppm

BDL

DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS  – 2008 Finished Water
Total trihalomethanes (TTHM)   (d)

0 ppb

80 ppb

42 ppb

Haloacetic Acids (HAA5)   (d)

0 ppb

60 ppb

16 ppb

***The positive microbiological test results (2) were sample point specific and unrelated to the distribution system.

 

 

 

   

Primary Drinking Water Standards

Parameter

Maximum Contaminant Level Goal

Maximum Contaminant Level

 

Actual KWD Test Result

INORGANIC CHEMICALS  (c) TE2/TE3 2008 

 

 

Antimony

6.0 ppb

6.0 ppb

< 0.50 ppb

Arsenic

0.0 ppb

10.0 ppb

0.68 ppb

Asbestos        (million fibers > 10 micron per liter)

7.0 MFL

7.0 MFL

KWD Exempt

Barium

2.0 ppm

2.0 ppm

0.0016 ppm

Beryllium

4.0 ppb

4.0 ppb

< 0.50 ppb

Cadmium

5.0 ppb

5.0 ppb

< 0.50 ppb

Chromium                                                (Total)

100 ppb

100 ppb

< 0.50 ppb

Copper                        (Action Level) (6/30/2006)

1.3 ppm

1.3 ppm

0.08 ppm @ 90th %

Cyanide

0.2 ppm

0.2 ppm

< 0.01 ppm

Fluoride

4.0 ppm

4.0 ppm (a)

1.20 ppm

Lead                            (Action Level) (6/30/2006)

0.0 ppb

15 ppb

<  5 ppb @ 90th %

Mercury

2.0 ppb

2.0 ppb

< 0.05 ppb

Nitrate as nitrogen

10.0 ppm

10.0 ppm

 0.10 ppm

Nitrite as nitrogen

1.0 ppm

1.0 ppm

< 0.01 ppm

Selenium

50.0 ppb

50.0 ppb

< 0.002 ppb

Thallium

0.5 ppb

2.0 ppb

< 0.5 ppb

RADIONUCLIDES (c)(f)   (picoCuries/L) 2006

 

 

 

Gross Alpha

0.0 pCi/L

15 pCi/L

.59 pCi/L

Radium

0.0 pCi/L

5 pCi/L

.63 pCi/L

Secondary Standards

Aesthetic Standards for Finished Water

CHEMICAL PARAMETERS (e)    2008   TE2                   
SMCL

Actual KWD Test Result

Chloride

 

250 ppm

10 ppm

Color (color units)

 

15 cu

< 5 cu

Copper

 

1.0 ppm

 0.0005 ppm

Corrosivity

 

Non corrosive

 

Fluoride (a)

 

2.0 ppm

1.20 ppm

Foaming Agents (MBAS)

 

0.50 ppm

 

Iron

 

0.30 ppm

< 0.05 ppm

Manganese

 

0.0500 ppm

0.0057 ppm

Odor – Threshold Odor Number

 

3 TON

 

pH

 

6.5 to 8.5

7.4

Silver

 

100 ppb

< 0.5 ppb

Sulfate

 

250 ppm

13 ppm

Total Dissolved Solids

 

500 ppm

73.8 ppm

Zinc

 

5 ppm

< 0.002 ppm

ADDITIONAL PARAMETERS (e) (g)    2008
KWD Range
KWD AVERAGE
Alkalinity (as CaCO3)

 

No Standard

23 ppm

Langelier Index

-2.55   to  -1.75

No Standard

– 2.38

Calcium

5.6  to  6.8 ppm

No Standard

6.0 ppm

Hardness (as CaCO3 )

< 100 ppm

No Standard

26 ppm

Free Chlorine Residual

1.03 to 1.65 ppm

No Standard

1.32 ppm

Total Chlorine Residual

1.25 to 1.82 ppm

No Standard

1.51 ppm

Ortho-Phosphate

0.51 to 0.75 ppm

No Standard

0.46 ppm

Temperature (degrees Celsius)

3.0 °C – 23.5 °C

No Standard

12.7 °C

Definitions and key to abbreviations
MCL = Maximum Contaminant Level, The highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. 
MCLG = Maximum Contaminant Level Goal. The level of a contaminant in drinking water below which there is no known or expected risk to health.
SMCL = Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels = Target for aesthetic quality without posing risk to human health at SMCL.
TT  = Treatment Technique = A required process intended to reduce the level of a contaminant in water in order to meet the standard.
NTU = Nephelometric Turbidity Units.  Turbidity is a measurement of cloudiness or suspended colloidal matter (silt).  Excessive turbidity levels can cause problems with water disinfection.  The single highest measurement of turbidity in calendar year 2008 was 0.79 NTU.  More than 99% of the samples taken by our water system were below 0.35 NTU, the MCLG for rapid filtration media.  KWD’s water filtration system renders the finished drinking water clear and safe to drink.
ppm = parts per million = milligrams per liter; ppb = parts per billion = micrograms per liter;  ppt = parts per trillion = nanograms per liter.
BDL = Below detectable limit.  
(a)        Turbidity and Fluoride are reported as monthly averages from daily samples at the entry to the distribution system.
(b)        Coliforms reported as monthly averages.  No more than 5% of the monthly samples shall be coliform positive.
(c)        Samples collected at the water source as required by state monitoring regulations
(d)        TTHM & HAA5 are calculated as a running annual average of quarterly samples taken at the extremities of the distribution system.
(e)        Data collected at the entry of the distribution system.
(f)         Results for radionuclides are from the 2006 samplings. Regulations require radionuclide monitoring once every four years. 
(g)        KWD annual average test results
Action Level: The concentration of a contaminant that, if exceeded, triggers treatment requirements which a water provider must follow.