Public Water System ID ME0090750

The Kennebec Water District (KWD) has been in existence since 1899. KWD presently serves the municipalities of Waterville, Winslow, Fairfield, Vassalboro, and Benton and supplies water for the town of Oakland.  KWD has a regular testing and reporting program and this Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) is one way of communicating those test results. The CCR is intended to provide you, the KWD customer, with important information about your drinking water. KWD’s trustees and employees want you to know that you can count on us for a safe and reliable supply of water every day, and we are dedicated to providing the highest quality service to you.

KWD ensures that your water is safe through regular monitoring of both its source and treated water. Testing is conducted in KWD’s own laboratory as well as in independent, state-certified laboratories. This CCR is a comprehensive summary of the laboratory test results.  KWD employs a professional staff of water treatment operators, licensed by the State of Maine Department of Health and Human Services, to maintain water quality within required parameters.

The Safe Drinking Water Act directs the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to establish and enforce minimum drinking water standards.  These standards set limits on certain biological, organic, inorganic, and radioactive substances potentially found in water supplies.  Two levels of standards have been established.  Primary drinking water standards set achievable levels and goals for drinking water quality to protect your health. Secondary drinking water standards provide guidelines regarding the taste, odor, color, and other aesthetic aspects of your drinking water which do not present a health risk. The 2010 testing results indicate that the Kennebec Water District’s water continuously meets or exceeds all state and federal requirements.

The presence of contaminants does not necessarily indicate that water poses a health risk.  However, some people may be more vulnerable to contaminants in drinking water than the general population. Immune-compromised persons such as persons with cancer undergoing chemotherapy, persons who have undergone organ transplants, people with HIV/AIDS or other immune system disorders, some elderly and infants can be particularly at risk from infection. These people should seek advice about drinking water from their health care providers.

EPA and CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk of infection by Cryptosporidium and other microbial contaminants are available from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline (1-800-426-4791) or from the Kennebec Water District office.

Fluoride in Drinking Water: KWD adds fluoride to its water in an amount to meet the EPA’s recommended dosage level of 1.2 ppm. In 2011, KWD will reduce its fluoride dose to 0.7 ppm in response to a newly revised recommendation from EPA. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) states that a proper amount of fluoride from infancy through old age helps prevent and control tooth decay. Parents, however, should be aware that a recent study raised the possibility that fluoride exposure during the first year of life may play a role in the development of enamel fluorosis, cosmetic changes to the outer surface of the tooth. When fluoridated water is used consistently as a mixer for formula as the primary source of nutrition over long periods of the first year, a child may receive enough fluoride to increase his/her chances of developing very mild to mild fluorosis. This potential can be lessened by using low fluoride water for formula all or most of the time. For more advice: http://www.cdc.gov/fluoridation/safety/infant_formula.htm.

Lead in Drinking Water: If present, elevated levels of lead can cause serious health problems, especially for pregnant women and young children. Lead in drinking water is primarily from materials and components associated with service lines and home plumbing. KWD is responsible for providing high quality drinking water, but cannot control the variety of materials used in household plumbing components. When your water has been sitting for several hours, you can minimize the potential for lead exposure by flushing your tap for 30 seconds to 2 minutes before using water for drinking and cooking. If you are concerned about lead in your water, you may wish to have your water tested. Information on lead in drinking water, testing methods, and steps you can take to minimize exposure is available from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline or at: http://www.epa.gov/safewater/lead.

Pharmaceuticals in Drinking Water: Recent media attention has focused on the presence of trace amounts of pharmaceutical and personal care products that have been detected in some water sources. Some minute amounts of these products may pass through animals and humans or disposal systems and eventually enter groundwater or surface waters. Even in locations showing some presence, the levels found are extremely low concentrations – millions of times lower than a therapeutic dose. Testing for the products is not yet required by EPA. KWD will continue to proactively test China Lake water and its finished water for such products. More information can be found at: http://www.epa.gov/ppcp/ .

Sources of drinking water include rivers, lakes, ponds, and wells. As water travels over the surface of the land or through the ground, it dissolves naturally occurring minerals and radioactive material and can pick up substances resulting from human or animal activity. The Maine Drinking Water Program (DWP) evaluated all public water supplies as part of the Source Water Assessment Program (SWAP). The assessments included geology, hydrology, land uses, water testing information, and the extent of land ownership or protection by local ordinance to see how likely our drinking water source is to being contaminated by human activities in the future.  The KWD Source Water Assessment is available for public viewing at the Kennebec Water District office. For more information about the SWAP, please contact the DWP at telephone 287-2070.

China Lake has served as KWD’s primary source of water since 1905. China Lake has 6.1 square miles of surface area within 32 square miles of watershed. The estimated capacity of the lake is 31 billion gallons. KWD demand averages approximately 1.14 billion gallons annually.  As a surface water body, China Lake is susceptible to pollution and contamination from both human and natural sources. Early in its existence, to help protect the water quality within China Lake, the Kennebec Water District acquired nearly all of the shoreline around the West Basin of the lake, planting thousands of trees to protect against the impacts of runoff.  The East Basin shoreline is mostly privately owned. Protection of the watershed presently is a combined effort of the towns of China and Vassalboro, the China Region Lakes Alliance, the China Lake Association and the Kennebec Water District. The common goal of these organizations is to improve China Lake water quality.

Because the variable water quality from China Lake includes frequent algae blooms during the summer and fall, the KWD water treatment facility uses many modern processes to effectively improve the quality of the water before we deliver it to your tap. These processes include coagulation, filtration, disinfection, pH adjustment and corrosion control.  Coagulation is used to remove particles from the raw water in three Microfloc upflow clarifiers.  The water is then filtered and polished in six granular activated carbon filters. Chlorine is added as a disinfectant. Chlorine levels are continuously monitored to ensure adequate and appropriate disinfection has occurred prior to delivery to consumers. As a dental health aid, fluoride is also combined with the finished water. The addition of a corrosion inhibitor and raising the pH of the water provides corrosion protection for KWD’s distribution piping system and your household plumbing. This treatment practice has been so effective in reducing lead and copper levels in the water that our required annual monitoring program has been extended to a three year cycle.

KWD’s water transmission and distribution systems include over 171 miles of water mains.  The system serves over 8800 customers in six communities and provides fire protection service through 634 hydrants.  In the last twelve months, KWD produced and delivered 1.14 billion gallons of water.  That’s a daily average of 3.13 million gallons.  KWD can maintain 17.4 million gallons in its 6 storage tanks.  This storage permits KWD to meet normal and peak system demands and to maintain an adequate supply for firefighting needs.

Approximately 3602 feet of water main was replaced or added to the KWD system in 2010. In addition, 27 leak repairs were completed on water mains, services, and hydrants. 783 water meters were cleaned, tested, and returned to service and over 35,000 meter readings were recorded and billed. More than 600 samples were collected and analyzed in the KWD state certified laboratory.

In 2010, KWD began two programs to upgrade its metering system. KWD began a three year program to install endpoints on all its metered services that will allow consumption data to be transmitted directly to the billing computers in the KWD business office. KWD also began a long term program to replace all its meters with a new type of meter – composite, magnetic flowmeters. The new meters are non-metallic, lead free, and have no moving parts. They are accurate for 20 years and will add great efficiency to the operations of the KWD Customer Service Department.

This CCR is only a summary report. If you have any questions about this report, your water quality or your water service, please call the Kennebec Water District’s business office at (207) 872-2763 during normal business hours (Monday through Friday between 8:30 a.m. and 4:30 p.m.). Questions may also be directed to the Maine Department of Health and Human Services Drinking Water Program at (207) 287-2070 or http://www.maine.gov/dhhs/eng/water or to the EPA Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 1-800-426-4791 or online at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/dwhealth.html.

PO Box 356   6 Cool Street
Waterville, Maine 04901
Tel: (207) 872-2763         
Fax: (207) 861-8964
Email: kennebecwater@prexar.com  
Website: www.kennebecwater.org

462 Main Street, (Route 32)
Vassalboro, ME  04989
Tel: (207) 923-3358   
Fax: (207) 923-3359

Board of Trustees (2011)
Joan Sanzenbacher (President) – Waterville
Karl Dornish (Vice President) – Winslow
J. Michael Talbot (Treasurer) – Waterville
Brent Williams (Assistant Treasurer) – Winslow
Jeff Earickson (Clerk) – Waterville
Gary Coull – Vassalboro
Albert Hodsdon – Fairfield
Mark McCluskey – Fairfield
Charles Richardson – Benton
Monty Smith – Waterville

Board of Trustee meetings are scheduled on the first and third Thursday of each month at 7:30 a.m. at our 6 Cool Street office. These meetings offer an opportunity for public participation in decisions that may affect water quality.

Primary Drinking Water Standards

  Regulated Standards for Finished Water

Parameter Maximum Contaminant Level Goal Maximum Contaminant Level Actual KWD Test Results
2010 Finished Water Turbidity
Turbidity  (a) (e) 0.10 NTU 5.0 NTU Avg: 0.10 NTU,  Max.: 0.12
MICROBIOLOGICAL (b) 2010  Finished Water            Coliform bacteria Enzyme substrate test (530 tests conducted)
% positive for microbiological presence 0 % 5 % 1.5 %***
Cryptosporidium / Giardia lamblia cysts 0 0
Total Trihalomethanes(TTHM)   (d) 0 ppb 80 ppb Avg.: 43.68 ppb (Range 34 – 59)
Haloacetic Acids (HAA5)   (d) 0 ppb 60 ppb Avg.: 21 ppb (Range 12 – 27)
***The positive microbiological test results (8) were related to distribution system maintenance and were negative upon recheck.

Primary Drinking Water Standards

   Regulated Standards for Finished Water

Parameter Maximum Contaminant Level Goal Maximum Contaminant Level Actual KWD Test Result
INORGANIC CHEMICALS (c)         TE6- 2010
Antimony 6.0 ppb 6.0 ppb < 1.0 ppb
Arsenic 0.0 ppb 10.0 ppb 0.74 ppb
Asbestos (million fibers > 10 micron per liter) 7.0 MFL 7.0 MFL KWD Exempt
Barium 2.0 ppm 2.0 ppm 0.0014 ppm
Beryllium 4.0 ppb 4.0 ppb < 0.50 ppb
Cadmium 5.0 ppb 5.0 ppb < 0.50 ppb
Chromium (Total) 100 ppb 100 ppb < 0.005 ppm
Copper (Action Level) (July,/2009) 1.3 ppm 1.3 ppm 0.120 ppm @ 90th%
Fluoride 4.0 ppm 4.0 ppm (a) 1.20 ppm
Lead (Action Level) (July/2009) 0.0 ppb 15 ppb 2.0 ppb @ 90th %
Mercury 2.0 ppb 2.0 ppb < 0.05 ppb
Nitrate as nitrogen 10.0 ppm 10.0 ppm < 0.05 ppm
Nitrite as nitrogen 1.0 ppm 1.0 ppm < 0.05 ppm
Selenium 50.0 ppb 50.0 ppb < 0.002 ppm
Thallium 0.5 ppb 2.0 ppb < 0.05 ppb
Uranium 0 ppb 30 ppb <0.5 ppb
RADIONUCLIDES (c)(f)   (picoCuries/L) 2006
Gross Alpha 0.0 pCi/L 15 pCi/L .0777 pCi/L

Secondary Standards

   Non-regulated Aesthetic Standards for Finished Water

CHEMICAL PARAMETERS (e)             2010   TE6 SMCL Actual KWD Test Result
Chloride 250 ppm 12 ppm
Color (color units) 15 cu < 5 cu
Copper 1.0 ppm 0.0005 ppm
Fluoride (h) 2.0 ppm 1.19 ppm
Iron 0.30 ppm < 0.05 ppm
Magnesium No Standard 1.1 ppm
Manganese 0.05 ppm 0.022 ppm
pH 6.5 to 8.5 7.2
Silver 100 ppb < 0.002 ppm
Sodium No Standard 9.5 ppm
Sulfate 250 ppm 11 ppm
Total Dissolved Solids 500 ppm 81.5 ppm
Zinc 5 ppm 0.0021 ppm
Alkalinity (as CaCO3) No Standard 15.4 ppm
Calcium 7.4  to  9.1  ppm No Standard 8.3 ppm
Hardness (as CaCO3 ) < 100 ppm No Standard 25.3 ppm
Free Chlorine Residual 1.21 to 1.65 ppm No Standard 1.36 ppm
Total Chlorine Residual 1.40 to 1.83 ppm No Standard 1.56 ppm
Ortho-Phosphate 0.32 to 0.63 ppm No Standard 0.45 ppm
Temperature (degrees Celsius) 3.27 °C – 23.7 °C No Standard 12.8 °C


MCL = Maximum Contaminant Level, The highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water.

MCLG = Maximum Contaminant Level Goal. The level of a contaminant in drinking water below which there is no known or expected risk to health.

SMCL = Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels = Target for aesthetic quality without posing risk to human health.

ppm = parts per million

ppb = parts per billion

TT  = Treatment Technique = A required process intended to reduce the level of a contaminant in water in order to meet a standard.

NTU = Nephelometric Turbidity Units.  A measurement of cloudiness or suspended colloidal matter (silt) in the water.  Excessive turbidity levels can cause problems with water disinfection.  The KWD water filtration system renders the finished drinking water clear and closely matches the EPA MCLG standard for turbidity quality for potable water systems.

Action Level: The concentration of a contaminant that, if exceeded, triggers treatment requirements which a water provider must follow

(a) Turbidity and Fluoride are reported as monthly averages from daily samples at the entry to the distribution system.

(b) Coliform presence reported as a monthly average.  No more than 5% of samples in a month shall be coliform positive.

(c) Samples collected at the water source as required by state monitoring regulations

(d) TTHM & HAA5 are calculated as a running annual average of quarterly samples taken at the extremities of the distribution system.

(e) Data collected at the entry of the distribution system.

(f) Results for radionuclides are from the 2006 samplings. Regulations require radionuclide monitoring once every nine years.

(g) KWD annual average test results

(h) Fluoride has both an MCL and SMCL. The SMCL is based on monthly averages.

Drinking water, including bottled water, may reasonably be expected to contain at least minute amounts of some contaminants.  The presence of contaminants does not necessarily indicate that water poses a health risk. Contaminants that may be present in source water include: (1) Microbial contaminants, such as viruses and bacteria, which may come from sewage treatment plants, septic systems, agricultural livestock operations, and wildlife, (2) Inorganic contaminants, such as salts and metals, which can be naturally occurring or result from urban storm water runoff, industrial or domestic wastewater discharges, oil and gas production, mining, or farming, (3) Pesticides and herbicides, which may come from a variety of sources such as agriculture, urban storm water runoff, and residential uses, (4) Organic chemical contaminants, including synthetic and volatile organic chemicals, which are by-products of industrial processes and petroleum production and can also come from gas stations, urban runoff, and septic systems. The KWD treatment processes reduce contaminant levels to within accepted standards.

Total Coliform Bacteria MCL Violation: In August 2010, some tests from a portion of our water system tested positive and recheck sample(s) were also positive for the presence of coliform bacteria. Public notification was distributed to all affected customers.  Coliforms are bacteria which are naturally present in the environment and are used as an indicator that other potentially harmful bacteria may be present.  Coliforms were found in more samples than allowed and this was a warning of potential problems.  After KWD took appropriate remedial actions, subsequent tests were negative for coliform bacteria.

No waivers.

In 2010, KWD tested for unregulated contaminant monitoring requirement 2 (UCMR2) requirements (flame retardants, pesticide ingredients, and explosives residuals).  All tests were below detectable limits.